The effects of coronavirus in newborns born from SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers

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Submission ID :
ESPR326
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Abstract: :

Background

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has caused a global pandemic affecting people of all ages and races. Based on the current available literature newborns have not been negatively affected in this pandemic. Most recent data has shown minimal to absent signs of vertical transmission and PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 has been negative in breast milk and amniotic fluid. Neonates are vulnerable to serious respiratory infections due to their immature immune system. However, there has not been a sufficient amount of data collected to determine the outcomes of newborns born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers.

Objective

The purpose of our study was to gather data on newborns born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers at a medical center located at one of the first epicenters of the pandemic in the suburbs of New York City to determine if they were likely to develop viral symptoms.

Design/Methods

This is a single center two-part study including a retrospective chart analysis and a prospective data collection via phone interview during the period between 03/28/2020 - 05/30/2020. The primary outcome measures were to determine if there is prenatal or perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection to newborns by performing SARS-CoV-2 PCR test within 24 hours after birth. Secondary outcomes were to evaluate for possible development of a virus-like illness in neonates who initially tested negative 24 hours after birth. For each newborn meeting the inclusion criteria of this study, a parent was contacted and interviewed via phone by one of the co-investigators.

Results

A total of 77 mothers were SARS-CoV-2 positive during a two month period at the medical center of which 62 mothers agreed to participate in our phone-based data collections. The frequencies for race showed the following percentages of those with SARS-CoV-2: 12.9% (n = 8) was White, 16.1% (n = 10) was Black, 67.7% (n = 42) was Hispanic, 3.2% (n = 2) was other.

At time of delivery 14% (n = 9) of mothers had symptoms of fever, cough, congestion or difficulty breathing. There were 5 out of the 9 symptomatic mothers who incorporated breast milk during feeds. Overall, all of these neonates tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 at 24 hours of life.

The results of the phone interview showed 6.5% (n = 4) developed fever of 100.4F or greater, and 6.5% (n = 4) reported cough, congestion, or difficulty breathing. Among the 62 participants, 9.7% (n = 6) had been to the emergency room or urgent care, and of these 50% (n = 3) were retested and positive for SARS-CoV-2. However, no SARS-CoV-2 positive participant required hospital admission.

Conclusion

This descriptive study supports the likelihood there is a low risk of transmission to neonates born from SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers, and it is unlikely they will develop symptoms of fever, cough, congestion, or difficulty breathing. However, our study had a limited number of participants due to the relatively recent outbreak, and we recommend a larger study as the ongoing pandemic continues.

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Good Samaritan Hospital Medical Center
Good Samaritan Hospital Medical Center
Good Samaritan Hospital Medical Center
Good Samaritan Hospital Medical Center
Good Samaritan Hospital Medical Center

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